Conscience is the repository of man in which he organizes values, principles, and moral standards so that he can distinguish between right and wrong, acceptable and unacceptable. Do I have consistent and correct values since childhood, so that he becomes the watcher of himself and sees God in all his actions?
The child’s personality begins to form from the age of 4-6 years and the conscience begins to develop with it. It is initially represented by hearing the voice of the parents’ instructions that they repeat to him as an inner voice in his mind, which makes him hesitate to complete this act of stubbornness and contradict this voice, and all this is due to how we issue We as parents have these commands and also the degree to which we interact with them and how close we are to them and appreciate them and some other things, which differ mainly according to the age of your child.
According to the American psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, who developed his famous theory called “Moral Development” through his work with children, where he presents short stories to a group of children that contain events and moral errors, but they are justified by the hero’s poverty or the illness of one of his relatives, so he steals an example for this reason, And then determine the reasons behind their judgments that they give to the hero of the story after asking them a series of questions about what they see as right and wrong in his actions, as this scientist was able to think about the reasons that led to the answer of each child and then classify the answers into different stages, he found that the reasons change with Children’s age:
In the first stage (before age
The child does not know the meaning of principles or values and does not specifically know the difference between right and wrong, but he makes his moral decisions based on their impact on him only, he focuses on individual consequences, and therefore his focus is on obedience and punishment and believes that there are absolute fixed rules that must be adhered to without discussion only To avoid punishment so as not to face a problem.
The second stage of development:
The child realizes that he must become good in the eyes of those around him, as he is part of society, and as he advances in age at 9 years until the beginning of adolescence, his understanding of the social definition of morals becomes clearer, and after he was focusing on himself only and avoiding punishment and problems, his beliefs become larger and his rules and principles focus on consideration Ali around him to become good in the eyes of society, feel the need to maintain the societal order and be able to perceive deviant and immoral behavior because it harms society and shakes its system.
In the third stage:
The child’s awareness of conscience arises at puberty and determines his choices according to his standards, principles, and moral beliefs, and development at this stage is more complex as he begins to realize the possibility of a conflict between what is socially acceptable and what he believes is acceptable. Which governs human beings as a whole, and here arises awareness of conscience and judges and decides its actions through the principles that it acquired in the previous stages and which it defends even if it violates society and forced it to bear the consequences, and Kohlberg mentioned that there are some adults stuck in the previous stage and cannot reach this mature stage.