The percentage of children with hydrocephalus, brain tumors, and epilepsy has increased significantly in recent times. Therefore, we present this special topic about these diseases and how to discover them and ways to treat and deal with them with several pediatric neurosurgeons in the Dr. Sulaiman Al Habib Medical Group, namely Dr. Bassim Yaqoub. Consultant neurologist and British fellow, Dr. Saad Al-Rajeh, consultant neurologist and American board-certified, Dr. Salama Al-Sheikh is a pediatric consultant specializing in the treatment of neurological diseases in newborns.
Hydrocephalus is one of the most dangerous diseases of the brain and nerves that affect children. It means the cerebrospinal fluid that circulates the cerebral cortex from the inside, as it is secreted into the four cavities in the brain. The function of this fluid is to transport nutrients to and from brain cells, and it performs In the role of protecting it from any sudden responses or movements of its owner during our normal life, and this fluid may cause it to become trapped inside the cavities of the brain… which leads to its large size and is reflected in the brain cells that suffer something like a malfunction, causing an increase in brain pressure, and this leads to dropsy, The child’s skull may be closed, which leads to high brain pressure, convulsions, coma, or death – God forbid. #2# The incidence of this disease in children ranges from 1 to 1.5 percent. The rates of hydrocephalus for congenital brain defects are 60 percent, which is very large, and there is a 40 percent rate of infection after birth.
The infection may occur due to birth. obstruction, or due to brain infections, or due to the presence of brain tumors and other diseases. Indications of the disease The most important thing that draws the attention of parents is the abnormal increase in head circumference. It is known that the normal head circumference at birth in the case of a female is 35 centimeters, and for a male, it can be 36 centimeters, and with varying proportions, it may increase a centimeter or two depending on the mother’s head Or the father, and in the first six months, the circumference of the head increases by a centimeter every month until it reaches 43 to 42 centimeters, during this period. In the following six months, the head circumference increases by half a centimeter per month, and when the child reaches his first year, it reaches 47 to 45 centimeters. It is very important to treat this disease promptly, as the early injury that occurs to brain cells may be permanent, and this affects the child, which may lead to permanent disability.
The disease is diagnosed by CT scan, which determines whether there is an increase in the size of the brain cavities or not, then magnetic resonance imaging is used, which is more accurate to determine the type of operation that will be performed, and whether the type of dropsy present is a complete or incomplete blockage. #3# Types of hydrocephalus There is a congenital type of hydrocephalus, and types during childbirth accompany the presence of bleeding and after childbirth in the event of inflammation and there are multiple other causes. Causes The causes of this disease are due to heredity and inbreeding sometimes, and it may occur due to the presence of inflammation of the mother’s uterus, causing the child to suffer from dropsy or lack of good drainage of the cerebrospinal fluid.
Also, the medicines that the mother takes during the first three months of pregnancy may lead to her child being infected with this disease, and it may happen with difficult deliveries, and since the brain tissue is very sensitive and not fully matured, one of them may be cut off and lead to bleeding inside the brain. God Almighty has prepared the brain in a way that enables it to absorb this bleeding, and there is no problem with it, but it may happen that the degree of absorption of the brain is not 100 percent, which leads to its leakage of cerebrospinal fluid and causes the drainage of this fluid to stop. And do not forget to point out that bacterial or viral infections that are not properly treated are among the causes of this dangerous disease. Early detection is necessary, and early detection of the disease benefits the speed of treatment, as the most characteristic thing for a sick child, in the beginning, is the large size of the head and the disproportion of the size of the head with the rest of the face and body organs in general… As for the next appearance, when the skull is closed, it shows an increase in brain pressure and swelling of the nerve Optical, which makes the child feel incapable of proper vision, and therefore this disease must be treated early and quickly because neglecting it will lead to the large size of the head and damage the brain cells, which will afflict the child with mental retardation and motor disability such as the inability to move.
The treatment methods are laparoscopic surgery, which is one of the good methods; Because it avoids the installation of valves, which may cause some problems. Laparoscopic surgery avoids any problems that may occur during or after the operation, and valve therapy may be used at another stage, because inflammation, blockage, or rupture of the valve may occur, and therefore it must be changed. Therefore, children must be followed up from the moment of their birth by a specialized pediatrician For early detection of any disease that may affect them.
Brain tumors in children As for brain tumors in children, they are a big problem and their incidence varies from one country to another. It is the second type of cancer that affects children after leukemia, and it is of paramount importance, as 50 percent of these tumors are adjacent to the brain stem, which leads to The occurrence of very rapid problems involving genetics, pollution, and others. How to detect a cancerous tumor There are specific symptoms that appear in the child, such as increased pressure in the skull and head circumference, and neurological symptoms such as paralysis, and the inability to speak or use one hand without the other, and the child may not be able to focus at school and be constantly asleep, and the most important thing in the morning head pain that increases in intensity With time. When these diseases are detected early, they can be completely eradicated, but require additional treatment (chemotherapy or radiation), and the rate of control of such diseases reaches from 60 to 70 percent. Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases among children. Epilepsy is recurrent seizures that may be accompanied by loss of consciousness and muscle spasms in the body and may lead to a halt in seizures.
Time to breathe, after which the patient wakes up, and he feels very tired and tends to sleep. And the fact that a child has one or two seizures at intervals does not mean that he has epilepsy, as any person is exposed to a seizure once in his life, and it may not recur. Epilepsy represents about 30% of brain and nerve diseases. Epileptic seizures.. and ways to deal with them The probability of seizures increases in cases of fever, high temperature, and sleep disturbance, and this often happens during exam periods as a result of staying up late, as well as exposure to excessive muscular stress or psychological tension, as well as neglecting and stopping treatment.